Sub-Metropolitan Cities In Nepal (11 Upa-Mahanagarpalika of Nepal)

Sub-metropolitan city in Nepal is a type of local-level government body of the federal structure of Nepal. Sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal are advanced forms of municipalities in our local level governments.

The local level government mainly consists of municipalities, rural municipalities, and district assembly. There are a total of 753 local levels excluding district assemblies. Among them, 460 are rural municipalities and 293 are municipalities.

Among the 293 municipal local governments of Nepal, there are 276 municipalities, 6 Metropolitan cities, and 11 sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal. Metropolitan cities and sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal are advanced forms of municipalities in Nepal. They are advanced in terms of availability of facilities and amenities.

Political and Administrative Structure of Nepal Showing Various Sub-Metropolitan Cities in Nepal

Sub-Metropolitan Cities In Nepal

The following is the list of 11 sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal with their respective district, province, area, and population details presented in east-to-west directional order.

SNName of Sub-Metropolitan CitiesDistrict (Province)Area (km2)PopulaltionNo. of wards
1Dharan Sub-Metropolitan CitySunsari (Koshi)192.32166,53120
2Itahari Sub-Metropolitan CitySunsari (Koshi)93.78197,24120
3Janakpur Sub-Metropolitan CityDhanusha (Madhesh)91.17194,55625
4Jeetpur Simara Sub-Metropolitan CityBara (Madhesh)309.67127,30724
5Kalaiya Sub-Metropolitan CityBara (Madhesh)108.94136,22227
6Hetauda Sub-Metropolitan CityMakwanpur (Bagmati)261.59193,57619
7Butwal Sub-Metropolitan CityRupandehi (Lumbini)101.61194,33519
8Ghorahi Sub-Metropolitan CityDang (Lumbini)522.21200,53019
9Tulsipur Sub-Metropolitan CityDang (Lumbini)384.63179,75519
10Nepalgunj Sub-Metropolitan CityBanke (Lumbini)85.94164,44423
11Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan CityKailali (Sudur-Paschim)261.75198,79219
List of 11 Sub-Metropolitan Cities in Nepal [Area Citation: Government Portal]

Top 5 Sub-Metropolitan Cities in Nepal by Area

The following are the top 5 sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal by the area covered by them.

  1. Ghorahi Sub-metropolitan City – Area 522.21 Km2
  2. Tulsipur sub-metropolitan city – Area 384.63 Km2
  3. Jeetpur Simara Sub-Metropolitan City – Area 309.67 Km2
  4. Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan City – Area 261.75 Km2
  5. Hetauda Sub-Metropolitan City – Area 261.59 Km2

Top 5 Sub-Metropolitan Cities in Nepal by Population

The following are the top 6 most populated sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal.

  1. Ghorahi Sub-Metropolitan City – Population: 200,530
  2. Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan City – Population: 198,792
  3. Itahari Sub-Metropolitan City – Population: 197,241
  4. Janakpur Sub-Metropolitan City -Population: 194,556
  5. Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City – Population: 194,335

Criteria For Being Declared As A Sub-Metropolitan City

The following are the minimum criteria to be fulfilled by the local levels in order to become a sub-metropolitan city in Nepal. In addition to the following criteria, they must fulfill all the criteria to be fulfilled by a municipality under the Local Government Operation Act, 2064.

SNSubjectCriteria for Sub-Metropolitan Cities in Nepal
1PopulationThe population with permanent residency must be at least 200,000 in that specific area.
2Income/ RevenueThe average annual internal revenue or income of a local level must be at least NPR. 250,000,000 (25 crore rupees) in the last 5 years.
3HealthHospitals with at least 200 beds in that region including one with at least 100 beds.
4Waste ManagementFacility of waste management and processing
5Meeting HallHaving a meeting hall,
6InfrastructuresHaving a National level stadium, gymnasium and covered hall,
7Basic FacilitiesAvailability of electricity, water, and communication services
8RoadsMajor roads within the city are paved
9EducationAvailability of higher education and techcnical education facilities
10Public PlacesA public garden and a nagar sabha hall (municipal assembly hall)
11Facility of modern slaughterhouse and organized crematoriumFacility of modern slaughterhouse and organized crematorium
12Disable Friendly EnvironmentPublic places and buildings are accessible to handicapped and physically challanged people,
13TourismTourist level hotels, motels and resorts,
14OtherAll other criteria set for a municipality in addition to the above and others as specified.
The minimum criteria for being declared as a sub-metropolitan city in Nepal.

Commonly Asked Questions

The following are the commonly asked questions regarding the sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal. This information helps boost your general knowledge for the preparation for competitive examinations as well as for general understanding.

Which is the largest sub-metropolitan city in Nepal?

Ghorahi Sub-Metropolitan City located in the Dang district is the largest sub-metropolitan city in Nepal with a huge area of 522.21 square kilometers. The top 6 sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal in the ascending order of area are:

RankSub-Metropolitan CityArea in km2
1Ghorahi sub-metropolitan city522.21
2Jeetpur Simara Sub-Metropolitan City309.67
3Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan City261.75
4Hetauda Sub-Metropolitan City261.59
5Dharan Sub-Metropolitan City192.32
6Kalaiya Sub-Metropolitan City108.94
Largest sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal

Which sub-metropolitan city has the highest number of population?

Ghorahi sub-metropolitan city has the highest population which is 200,530. Being the largest by area, it has advantages of being the most populated sub-metropolitan city in Nepal as well.

The top 6 most populated sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal are:

RanksSub-Metropolitan CitiesPopulation
1Ghorahi sub-metropolitan city200,530
2Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan City198,792
3Itahari Sub-Metropolitan City197,241
4Janakpur Sub-Metropolitan City194,556
5Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City194,335
6Hetauda Sub-Metropolitan City193,576
Most populated sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal

Which is the smallest sub-metropolitan city in Nepal?

Nepalgunj Sub-Metropolitan City is the smallest sub-metropolitan city in Nepal with a total area of just 85.94 square kilometers. Jeetpur-Simara is the smallest in terms of the total population which is 127,307.

Which district has the most number of sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal?

There are 3 districts with 2 sub-metropolitan cities each. They are Sunsari district with Itahari and Dharan sub-metropolitan cities. Similarly, the Bara district also has 2 sub-metropolitan cities which are Kalaiya and Jeetpur-Simara sub-metropolitan cities. The largest district of inner Terai, Dang also has 2 sub-metropolitan cities which are Ghorahi and Tulsipur sub-metropolitan cities.

Which province has the most number of sub-metropolitan cities?

Lumbini province has the most numbers of sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal. There are a total of 4 metropolitan cities which are Ghorahi, Tulsipur, Butwal, and Nepalgunj.

How many provinces are there without any sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal?

There are two provinces without any sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal. They are Gandaki Province and Karnali Province. Karnali province does not have a metropolitan city within it while Gandaki has one metropolitan city which is the largest metropolitan city in Nepal.

What is the east to west order of sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal?

The directional order of the sub-metropolitan cities in Nepal is Dharan, Itahari, Janakpurdham, Jeetpur-Simara, Kalaiya, Hetauda, Butwal, Ghorahi, Tulsipur, Nepalgunj and Dhangahdi sub-metropolitan cities.

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