Metropolitan Cities In Nepal – The 6 Mahanagarpalika of Nepal

A Metropolitan city is a type of local body in Nepal. Metropolitan cities in Nepal fall under the category of municipality in terms of local government in Nepal.
Currently, there are a total of 293 municipalities in Nepal among which 11 are Sub-Metropolitan cities, and 6 of them are Metropolitan cities.

There are only 6 Metropolitan cities in Nepal out of 753 local levels. The reason behind such a small number is the minimum requirements to be fulfilled to get declared as a Metropolitan city.

Minimum Requirements for Metropolitan Cities in Nepal

According to the Local Government Operation Act, 2074 the followings are the minimum criteria to be met by an area to be recognized as a metropolitan city in Nepal.


There must be a minimum of 500,000 population with permanent residents in that area.

Income/ Revenue:

The average annual internal income/revenue must be 1 billion in the last five years.

Basic Facilities and  Infrastructures:

In terms of infrastructure and facilities, the act requires the following facilities:

  • Bus park with terminal, sufficient parking, sub-ways, and footpath/walkway,
  • Urban transport facilities and disable friendly public transport system,
  • Out of the total length of the road inside that local level, at least 75% of roads are paved or pitched.
  • Properly organized fruits and vegetable shopping,
  • Facilities of shopping malls,
  • Hotels with international facilities,
  • International level seminar hall and international level trade exhibition site,
  • Stadium for international sports,
  • Easy access to international airports
  • Museum,
  • Conservation of especially important heritage sites in the area,
  • Enough entertainment facilities,
  • Kindergartens/ Children park and recreation areas for senior citizens,
  • Urban greenery and beauty

Health and Education:

Following facilities are required in terms of the health and education sector

  • The facility of educational institutions that provides at least a bachelor’s degree-level education.
  • The facility of technical education institutes,
  • The facility of dance halls and creation galleries,
  • Hospital facility of at least 500 beds including at least one hospital with specialist services and one general hospital with at least a hundred beds.

Other Requirements:

Other urban facilities as prescribed.

Metropolitan Cities in Nepal

There are six Metropolitan cities in Nepal and they are given below.

#1 Pokhara Metropolitan City:

Pokhara Metropolitan City is located in Gandaki Province, Kaski district. Pokhara Metropolitan city is the largest metropolitan city in Nepal with an area of 464.2 square Kilometers. Pokhara metropolitan city was declared as a Metropolitan city on March 10, 2017. Pokhara is one of the largest tourist areas in Nepal.

Pokhara Metropolitan City Infographics
Infographics: Pokhara Metropolitan City

#2 Bharatpur Metropolitan City.

Bharatpur Metropolitan city is located in Bagmati Province, Chitwan district by the Narayani River. Bharatpur is the second largest metropolitan city in Nepal with a total area of 432.95 square kilometers. It was declared a metro on March 10, 2017.

Bharatpur Metropolitan City Infographics
Infographics: Bharatpur Metropolitan City

#3 Birgunj Metropolitan city

Birgunj Metropolitan city is the only Metropolitan of province number 2 located in the Parsa district. It is the third-largest metropolitan city in Nepal. It covers a total of 75.24 square kilometers of area.

Birgunj Metropolitan City Infographics
Infographics: Birgunj Metropolitan City

#4 Biratnagar Metropolitan city:

Biratnagar Metropolitan city is located in Biratnagar of Morang district, Province no. 1. It is the only metropolitan city in province number 1. Biratnagar is the capital of Province no.1. Biratnagar Metropolitan city covers a total of 458.48 square kilometers of area. This makes it the 4th largest or 3rd smallest metropolitan in Nepal.

Biratnagar Metropolitan City Infographics
Infographics: Biratnagar Metropolitan City

#5 Kathmandu Metropolitan city:

Kathmandu Metropolitan city is the oldest Metropolitan city located in Bagmati province, capital of Nepal, Kathmandu district of Kathmandu Valley. Kathmandu is the second smallest metropolitan city in Nepal that covers a total of 49.45 square kilometers area.

Kathmandu Metropolitan City Infographics
Infographics: Kathmandu Metropolitan City

#6 Lalitpur Metropolitan City:

Lalitpur Metropolitan city is located in Bagmati province, Lalitpur district of Kathmandu valley. Lalitpur is the smallest metropolitan city in Nepal covering only 37.4 square kilometers.

Lalitpur Metropolitan City Infographics
Infographics: Lalitpur Metropolitan City

These were the six metropolitan cities, and local bodies of Nepal falling under the municipality category. For more details about the local levels, please visit the portal of local government.

More Facts about Metropolitan Cities in Nepal

1. Total Number of Metropolitan Cities in Nepal – Six [Bharatpur, Biratnagar, Birgunj, Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Pokhara]
2. Province with the most number of Metropolitan cities – Bagmati (3), [Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bharatpur]
3. Provinces without any Metropolitan cities – 3 [Lumbini, Karnali, and Sudurpaschim]
4. Largest Metropolitan City – Pokhara
5. Smallest Metropolitan city – Lalitpur
6. Oldest Metropolitan city – Kathmandu

Do you have an idea about the provinces and districts in each province of Nepal? If you want to know about the province-wise district, you can read our other post about the List of 77 districts in Nepal.

One comment

  1. नेपालमा यो महानगरपालिकाको बारेमा स्पस्ट रुपले व्याख्या गरिएको पाइदैन। एउटा महानगर पालिका हुनको निम्ति कति के कुन खालको कुराहरुको आवश्यक पर्छ, हुनु पर्छ भन्ने कुरा स्पस्ट छैन। नेता,कार्यकर्ताहरुको मनोमानीमा कुनै पनि साना तिना स्थान, गाउँ लाई नै प्रोमोट गर्दै सेवा सुविधा लिनको निम्ति नगरपालिका, उपमहानगर, इत्यादी बनाउछ्न अनि विभिन्न सेवा तथा वस्तुको भाउ आकश झै वृद्धि गर्छन!

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